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Starting [story] China Medical History of Western medicine

Time:2016-05-10 Click:2499

Since ancient times, humans always make constant struggle with pain and surgical pain when trying to find the way. According to legend, in ancient India, Babylon, Greece and other countries, who use opium poppy, scopolamine base, Mandela grass anesthesia. In ancient China, Hua Tuo legend configuration Mafeisan for anesthesia. In medieval Europe the use of frozen or affected limb, or a method for compression of nerves and blood vessels in order to achieve a partial loss of sensation, and even coma and bleeding the patient for surgery. These human pain and struggle exploration can be seen as embryonic idea of anesthesia, but their common drawback is that the effect is not exact and low security. Until 1846, the American dentist Morton (WilianThomas Morton) at MGH demonstration of ether anesthesia, application design gas reservoir just bad (ether inhaler) were anesthetized successfully removed a tumor of the mandible pressman this event marks the beginning of modern anesthesia.


Spread Parker doctors and inhalation anesthesia in China

Peter Parker (Peter Parker, 1804 -1889) 1804 was born in Massachusetts, graduated from Yale University School of Medicine in 1831, the US Department of the United States in 1834 was one of the Christian denominations will be ordained a priest, and was sent to China to do missionary doctor.



Guangzhou is the forefront of China was the first contact with the Western world, Western medicine is the oldest and the first to enter the prosperous city. Dr Peter Parker in November 1835 in Guangzhou opened the Eastern Church's first hospital - Guangzhou Ophthalmology Medical Board (ie, the predecessor of Guangzhou Boji Hospital, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital today). Although it is an ophthalmic dispensary, but Peter Parker Doctors also performed various surgical hospital. To cope with the development of surgery, after Morton's public demonstration of ether anesthesia success, in October 1846, Peter Parker, a doctor specially purchased Jackson (Jackson CT) developed by doctors and a group of ether anesthesia device crossing from Boston. In 1847, Peter Parker doctors first removed the right arm of a patient lipoma diethyl ether anesthesia in China. He wrote in his diary that its use is: "In the inhalation 'ether vapor after three minutes, although the patient still on the sanity issue raised clearly answer, but neither the patient feel scalpel incision and excision, it also has felt the suture, the tumor will be quickly removed. "

In 1849, Peter Parker, the doctor has applied its founder chloroform anesthesia in ophthalmology Medical Board, which is also documented chloroform anesthesia first application in China. This is an example of documented mastectomy, the patient was a 42-year-old native of the South China Sea County Chinese women, she was suffering from breast hypertrophy. Doctor Peter Parker wrote, "In the December 24, 1849, when she came to the operating table ...... for the removal of the left breast, she was quite nervous, but then she lost consciousness, waking only when she stitched report ...... after over a month, when the removal of the right breast again, according to her claim with chloroform again, she almost immediately in anesthesia. she starts feeling comfortable in an excited state, or singing hymns, until quiet down and not move ....... "

Ether anesthesia in 1846 officially applied to general anesthesia in the United States, after this law appears less than a year, Dr Peter Parker will be introduced into China in its application in China, chloroform anesthesia soon be Peter Parker doctor. Using these anesthesia, indicating the spread of technology in modern Western medicine in China is relatively rapid and effective, and there was indeed Guangzhou Western Learning center.

Parker western medicine doctors and Development of Chinese 19th Century

Parker doctor came in 1834, Chinese missionary doctors do, until he stepped down in 1857 after the United States Minister to leave China, in China for up to 23 years time. He merits this article in politics will not comment, but his Western medicine, Western medicine, Western hospital system introduced in Modern China and Chinese doctors and nurses in training does play a positive role.


1835 Parker Dr founded in Guangzhou Ophthalmology Dispensary, known as China's "west of the originator of the hospital," hospital system it western modern transplanted to China. Modern hospital system mainly originated in Europe. 9th century Europe, there have been many hospitals and monasteries linked. After the Renaissance, increasing scientific progress, the rapid development of the hospital, and gradually form a medical based, treatment and care as one of the modern hospital system. The "hospital" Chinese Traditional and modern Western sense of the hospital system very different in ancient China, the hospital has been a product of the palace, the traditional medical system is basically around the throne and set up. Since the function of kingship service limit, the ancient medical treatment of civilians and scale quite limited until after the Ming Dynasty, with full penetration of the secular trend of TCM, Chinese medicine comprehensive civil inflows, but still nursing the family unit.

Peter Parker Doctors copy of Modern Western hospital management systems to China. This is reflected in: First, the hospital is open to all citizens, and all those who come for treatment provided diagnostic records, the establishment of medical files; second, disease classification, ophthalmology divided into 47 kinds, 23 kinds of other diseases; third, the surgery to China. Parker opened eye doctors Yee Kuk in China has achieved great success, since November 4, 1835 the hospital opened, until November 4, 1836, hospital patients up to 2152 people. Parker doctor's diary account of this hospital so that medical consultation busy situation, said: "I saw some of them carrying a lamp, 23 o'clock in the morning came out from the house, in order to arrive the same day if admitted patients. a limited number of them will come the previous night, all night waiting for the next day to get a registration ticket. "

In 1839-1840, the Peter Parker Doctors in this hospital to cure patients has reached 9,000. Wherein Daoguang nineteen years (1839) in July, has come to Guangzhou smoke Commissioner Lin suffering from hernia disease, also sent to the hospital for medical treatment medicine healed well praised this hospital skillful. Peter Parker Doctors report on the case, he said: "Lin, hernia disease, imperial envoy, former viceroy, term of Guangdong, Guangxi province two .......

In 1844, Peter Parker Doctors Ophthalmology Dispensary implementation of China's first cases of stone removal surgery, surgery patients are very satisfied with Parker doctors believe it is "the highest degree of success. Peter Parker doctors or advocates of human anatomy, 1850, Peter Parker doctors in ancient China for the first two bodies were pathological anatomy, and thus find the patient's death. thus, although the doctor Peter Parker is an ophthalmologist, but in the tumor resection, cystectomy , amputation, and the application of anesthesia with the contribution he was committed to Western new medical technology introduced into China, which is worthy of recognition.

Parker budding doctors Western medicine and Chinese Education

Traditional Chinese medicine education to master and apprentices as the main way, mainly through the well-known secret or learning in the classroom, this educational approach has its own limitations, easily tend selfish and narrow-minded. Education and training of medical personnel of the Western medicine column has a complete set of formal demonstration, showing the advantages and the overall effect on the scale. In 1837, Parker set up soon in order to give the doctor an ophthalmic dispensary assistant culture, set up a "medical class." After his selection, a number of Chinese youth began in ophthalmic dispensary system with him to learn English and Western medicine, including pharmacy and pathology, and in the hospital and surgical assistants to help with dispensing side of things. Medical squad leader Guan Tao became the first Western-style Chinese Military, former "five Dingdai medic. Parker doctors offered medical classes can be described as a precedent for China to open in Modern Western medicine education.


Then in 1866, Dr Peter Parker's successor, John Glasgow Kerr Nanhua Medical School was founded on the basis of (later renamed Boji Medical School), which became China's first officially recorded in Western medicine school. The school started to recruit only men, 12 students enrolled in 1868, in 1870 a number of forks income. 1879 SOUTH medical school was renamed "South Medical School," and began to recruit female students. Sun Yat-sen University in 1886 to study for a year, during this period, Sun Yat-sen John Glasgow Kerr accepts proposals to allow boys to study obstetrics and gynecology, male and female students isolation removed hangings. Nanhua Medical School closed in 1912, it has trained a total of 150 graduates. These pioneers for the first contact with Western medicine in southern and western medicine spread throughout China have contributed, including the famous revolutionary Zhengmeng Nan, Kangyou Ren, Zheng Shiliang, SK Chuang (female), Jing Ran (female) and the like. Seen in this light, the doctor Peter Parker and its successor John Glasgow Kerr spread of Western medicine in China is indeed contributed.

Western medical science knowledge into China, for China's modernization process, had a profound impact. Western medicine in China spread, especially in the overall transplant discipline and institutional change the existence of thousands of years, a single medicine exist independently of the situation, and gradually changed the traditional Chinese medical concepts. More importantly, the West and Western medicine hospital school, became the people in the country to see the Western world a window. It is through the medium of West hospital, the people at that time the Western political and economic systems, ideological and cultural ideas with the corresponding awareness; through this channel and these people see the world, some later became the Patriots open up a new era .

As missionaries serve Del (Beadle) wrote that "the West cannon can not wide open the gateway to China, and Peter Parker, MD, a surgical knife has its doors wide open. The doctor Peter Parker in his later years to become a fully-fledged politician, but have fundamental his contribution to the medical and health sector in Guangzhou, China is obvious. as the first missionaries doctor, he made a lot of pioneering work, from the founder of the hospital trial to Western medicine in the Chinese education, the development of China's western medicine brought an opportunity, but also for a large number of Chinese people to lift the pain. his political position, his religious cloak, his career diplomats and politicians, the dawn of history to judge.




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